The work and discussions carried out by the experts will be divided into five different Subtasks
Subtask 0: Definitions Lead by Dr. Salvatore Vasta (CNR-ITAE – Italy)
Subtask 0 will address the key definitions and classification of Carnot Batteries in order to standardize the Carnot Battery “language” (definition of acronyms etc.). Furthermore, the key performance indicators (KPIs) will be defined among a group of pre-defined boundaries, such as operating conditions, materials, components and systems. Technical, economical and further non-technical aspects will be considered for this task. Finally, state of the art determination for thermal energy storage as a component suitable for Carnot Batteries will be carried out following a systematic analysis. This will serve as a guidance for determining the missing information and requirements to the deployment of these technologies.
Subtask A will assess the state of the art of Carnot Batteries based on Rankine cycles (so called Rankine Batteries) on a system level. Also, the identification of system configurations will be carried out, identifying the sinks and sources and the storage temperatures of Rankine Batteries. Finally, the modelling and assessment of the systems will be performed in order to get a common understanding of efficiency, dynamic behavior, scalability and the basis for economic evaluations. Experimental data from existing systems and know-how will be shared, as long as it is not confidential.
In analogy to Subtask A, Subtask B will assess the state of the art of Carnot Batteries, based on Brayton or Joule cycles (so called Brayton Batteries), focusing on the identification of promising cycle designs, working conditions and working fluids. The experimental data and analysis of existing or planned systems as well as simulation results for promising system concepts will be collected and assessed. The boundary conditions for TES are determined and provided as input for Subtask 0. Finally, the R&D demand will be determined.
Subtask C Other concepts and combinations Lead by Prof. Yulong Ding (University of Birmingham – UK)
Subtask C will investigate concepts that are not classified as Rankine nor Brayton Batteries, as well as combinations of different processes, e.g. the Lamm-Honigmann-Process, Liquid Air Energy Storage with TES, GT based technologies with TES and steam generation for enhancing the GT performance, CO2 based transcritical cycles for conversion with TES and material based generation such as thermoelectric generators. System and component level based data for KPI definition will be provided for Subtask 0.
Subtask D Market Analysis, Energy System, Policy and Regulations Lead by Dr. Adrienne Little (Google [X] on behalf of Malta Inc)
Subtask D will focus on promoting commercial acceptance of Carnot Batteries, by identifying market requirements for these technologies, assisting cost modelling and analyzing the Tech-to-Market transition. In addition, it will support policy and regulations as well as (non-scientifically focused) dissemination activities. Through education, lobbying and advertising, it builds support with hearts and minds.